teman-teman.. ini jawaban asis..
tapi ini cuma copas dari slide parkin ya. dan jangan terpaku sama jawaban ini aja..
- Banyak ekonom berkebaratan dengan struktur pasar monopoli karena adanya dead weight loss (DWL). Jelaskan selengkapnya apa yang dimaksud dengan DWL, apa kaitannya dengan efisiensi, dan mengapa hal itu bisa terjadi. Akan lebih baik jika penjelasan Anda memuat perbandingan secara grafis antara pasar monopoli dengan pasar persaingan sempurna.
Monopoly is inefficient. At the competitive equilibrium, marginal social benefit equals marginal social cost; total surplus is maximized; firms produce at the lowest possible long-run average cost; and resource use is efficient.
Because P > MR, and because MR = MC, P > MC—single-price monopoly under-produces and creates deadweight loss. Because price exceeds marginal social cost, marginal social benefit exceeds marginal social cost, and a deadweight loss arises.
Rent seeking uses further resources so potentially the social cost of monopoly is the sum of the deadweight loss and the economic profit that a monopoly might earn.
Any surplus—consumer surplus, producer surplus, or economic profit—is called economic rent.
Rent seeking is the pursuit of wealth by capturing economic rent.
Rent seekers pursue their goals in two main ways:
§ Buy a monopoly—transfers rent to creator of monopoly.
§ Create a monopoly—uses resources in political activity.
Adam Smith described the situation thus: “People in the same trade seldom meet together, even for merriment and diversion, but the conversation ends in some contrivance to raise prices.”
- Anda kenal bentuk PPS dan monopoli
a. Sebut dan jelaskan karakteristik masing-masing pasar dan implikasinya pada kekuatan (market power) perusahaan di pasar.
b. Jelaskan apa implikasinya karakteristik free entry dan free exit dalam pasar persaingan sempurna dan bagaimana entry-exit ini terjadi.
c. Bagaimana caranya perusahaan menentukan jumlah barang (Q) yang akan diproduksi dan tingkat harganya dengan tujuan memaksimumkan keuntungan
d. Perusahaan yang memegang kekuatan monopoli dikatakan tidak efisien dibandingkan dengan perusahaan pada pasar persaingan sempurna. Jelaskan dengan 1 grafik!
a. Pasar Persaingan Sempurna: The perfect competition model serves as a benchmark and its predictions work in a wide range of real markets. Set the scene for appreciating the power of the perfect competition model with a physical analogy. Explain that physicists often use the model of a “perfect vacuum” to understand our physical world. For example, to predict how long it will take a 50 pound steel ball to hit the ground if it is dropped from the top of the Empire State Building, you will be very close to the actual time if you assume a perfect vacuum and use the formula that applies in that case. Friction from the atmosphere is obviously not zero, but assuming it to be zero is not very misleading. In contrast, if you want to predict how long it will take a feather to make the same trip, you need a fancier model!
Economists use the model of “perfect competition” in a similar way to understand our economic world. Emphasize to students that although no real world industry meets the full definition of perfect competition, the behavior of firms in many real world industries and the resulting dynamics of their market prices and quantities can be predicted to a high degree of accuracy by using the model of perfect competition.
1. Many firms sell identical products to many buyers.
2. There are no restrictions to entry into the industry.
3. Established firms have no advantages over new ones.
4. Sellers and buyers are well informed about prices.
5. Price taking. Be sure to spend a few minutes providing intuition to ensure that your students understand why firms in perfect competition are price takers: They can offer to sell for a lower price, but they’re giving profits away; and they can ask for a higher price, but no one will pay. You might like to note that if the market is not in equilibrium, the firm isn’t a price taker. If there is a shortage, firms can get away with a higher price and they ask for more. That’s how prices rise. If there is a surplus, firms offer a lower price to move their product. That’s how prices fall. But in equilibrium, there is nothing to do but take the going price. And competitive markets get to equilibrium fast.
- That produces a good or service for which no close substitute exists
- In which there is one supplier that is protected from competition by a barrier preventing the entry of new firms.
- implikasinya karakteristik free entry dan free exit dalam pasar persaingan sempurna
Firms respond to economic profit and economic loss by either entering or exiting a market. New firms enter a market in which existing firms are making an economic profit. Firms exit a market in which they are incurring an economic loss. Temporary economic profit and temporary economic loss don’t trigger entry and exit. It’s the prospect of persistent economic profit or loss that triggers entry and exit.
Entry and exit change the market supply, which influences the market price, the quantity produced by each firm, and its economic profit (or loss).
If firms enter a market, supply increases and the market supply curve shifts rightward. The increase in supply lowers the market price and eventually eliminates economic profit. When economic profit reaches zero, entry stops.
If firms exit a market, supply decreases and the market supply curve shifts leftward. The market price rises and economic loss decreases. Eventually, economic loss is eliminated and exit stops.
- perusahaan menentukan jumlah barang (Q) yang akan diproduksi dan tingkat harganya dengan tujuan memaksimumkan keuntungan pada pasar persaingan sempurna
The firm produces the quantity of output for which the difference between total revenue and total cost is at its maximum because this difference is its economic profit.
Marginal analysis can be used to determine the profit maximizing quantity. The firm compares the marginal revenue (which remains constant with output) to the marginal cost (which changes with output) of producing different levels of output.
When MR > MC, then the extra revenue from selling one more unit exceeds the extra cost of producing one more unit, so the firm increases its output to increase its profit.
When MR < MC, then the extra cost of producing one more unit exceeds the extra revenue from selling one more unit, so the firm decreases its output to increase its profits
When MR = MC, then the extra cost of producing one more unit equals the extra revenue from selling one more unit, so the firm’s profit is maximized at this level of output.
In the figure the firm produces 4 units of output because that is the quantity that sets the firm’s marginal cost equal to its marginal revenue, that is, MR = MC. The firm then charges the going market price of $30 for its good.
d. Sama seperti yang dipertanyaan no 1
- Dari sudut pandang kesejahteraan masyarakat, kenapa perusahaan monopoli mencerminkan inefisiensi dibandingkan dengan bentuk oasar yang lainnya seperti PPS?
- Jelaskan kapan perusahaan akan mengambil keputusan untuk “temporary shutdown” dan mengapa keputusan tersebut diambil. Tunjukkan dalam tingkatkan harga dan output mana perusahaan berada pada posisi indifferent antara terus berproduksi dan shutting down. Juga tunjukkan besaran kerugian yang ditanggung perusahaan jika perusahaan mengambil keputusan “shutdown”
b. If the firm makes an economic loss, it must decide to exit the market or to stay in the market.
If the firm decides to stay in the market, it must decide whether to produce something or to shut down temporarily.
The decision will be the one that minimizes the firm’s loss.
The rationale for temporary shutdown isn’t confined to perfect competition and that they can see the phenomenon right around the corner. Many restaurants close on Sunday evening and Monday. Many hairdressers close on Sunday and Monday. Why? Your students will easily figure out that total revenue is less than total variable cost and equivalently that price is less than average variable cost.
The mechanics of the shutdown analysis will be a lot easier to explain once the students have thought about these real situations with which they are familiar.
Why would a restaurant open on days it knows business will be bad? Monday is typically the slowest day in the restaurant industry. So why do so many restaurants stay open on Monday? The answer is that even if a restaurant incurs an economic loss on Monday, it still might increase its total profit by remaining open. The point is that as long as the restaurant can cover all its variable costs—the cost of the food, the cost of the servers, and so on—it likely will be able to pay some of its fixed costs using the revenue left over after paying its variable costs. As long as the restaurant can pay some of its fixed costs on Monday, its total profit by staying open exceeds what its total profit would be if it closed. So losing money on Monday might be good business
Jelaskan dengan diagram struktur pasar persaingan sempurna yang mendapat: a) untung, b) kondisi break even, c) yang merugi. Jelaskan pula apa yang dimaksud dengan d) shutdown point? Kemudian, apabila perusahaan merugi, e) kapan perusahaan harus keluar dari industri?
Operating a business at zero economic profit. Students are often skeptical that a zero economic profit is an acceptable outcome for an entrepreneur. The key is to reinforce the meaning of normal profit.
A rational decision is one that is based on a weighing of the full opportunity cost of each alternative against its full benefits—for a firm weighing the total revenue against the opportunity cost for each alternative.
Opportunity cost includes the benefits from forgone opportunities as well as explicit costs. One of these forgone opportunities is that of the entrepreneur pursuing her/his next best activity.
The value of this forgone opportunity is normal profit.
So, when a firm makes zero economic profit, the entrepreneur earns normal profit and enjoys the same benefits as those available in the next best activity. There is no incentive to change to the next best activity.
This economic loss is a signal for firms to exit the market. As exit takes place, supply decreases and the market supply curve shifts leftward toward S*. As supply decreases with no change in demand, the market
price gradually rises from $17 to $20 a sweater. At this higher price, losses are eliminated, each firm makes zero economic profit, and exit stops.
Exit results in a decrease in market output, but each firm’s output increases. Because the price rises, each firm moves up its supply curve and produces more. Because the number of firms decreases, the market produces less.
Parkin, Michael.Economics 10th.